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What is Khasra, Shajra, Khewat, Khata, Khatauni, Fard, Shamilat, Patwari...


In Pakistan and India, Land records are managed through a Patwar system which was first introduced in the subcontinent by the ruler Sher Shah Suri and further enhanced by Mughal Emporer Akbar. The British continued the same system in Indian Subcontinent with minor amendments. Following are some most commonly used terms in the land record related documents.
khasra-khata-khatauni

Land related Terms/ Nomenclature

What is Khasra Number
Khasra is a piece of land with specific measurements and a specific number.

Khasra Gardawari
A Khasra Girdawari is a legal document of Revenue Departments in Pakistan and India. It is a list of folds field register or harvest inspection register. It specifies land and crop details. Khasra is like a survey book which has details of the land i.e. all the fields and their areas, measurement, owners, crops, type of soil and trees on the land.

Khata Khatauni
A list of holdings of tenants.

Khewat
A list of owner’s holdings.

Shajra
It is also written as Shujra or Shujrah. It is a map or plan of the village lands. Its mean map of a specific piece of land having specific Khasra number from the map/plan of an estate or village defining its boundaries.

Shamilat
Village common land.

Fard Malkiat
Fard Malkiat also known as (Record of Rights/ Jama Bandi/ Misal Haquiat/ Register Haqdaran-e-Zameen) maintained for determination/ record of various types of rights in the immovable property. It is a piece of paper showing details of the land and is issued by the concerned Patwari.

Intiqal (Mutation)
The mutation is an order by a revenue officer when a change in the record of rights is required to be altered, changed or mutated in the revenue record.

Patwari
At the village level, a Patwari maintains a record of all the lands in the form of Khasra and Shajra etc. He is the lowest but very important official in the land revenue department. 

Tehsildar
Patwaris report to Tehsildar who is the head of the revenue department at tehsil level. At the district level, Assistant Commissioner (Land Revenue) is the head of the revenue department who reports to the Commissioner.

Types of Properties

There are following different types of properties:
  • Freehold Property
  • Leasehold Property
  • Evacuee Property
  • Cantonment Land
  • Government granted Land
  • Allotted Land
  • Abandoned Properties

Types of Rights

There are two types of rights of property:
  • Leasehold right
  • Ownership Right

Who Maintain Records of Rights?

  • Development Authorities 
  • Land Revenue Departments (Tehsildar/ Mukhtarkar) 
  • Societies 
  • Military Estate Office / Cantonment Board 
  • Evacuee Properties Trust Board 
  • Estate Office of Federal Govt. (Abandoned Properties)

Forms of Legal Transfer of Property

  • Sale Deed
  • Gift Deed / Relinquishment Deed
  • Allotment Order
  • Exchange Deed
  • Will
  • Grant
  • Lease/Sub-Lease
  • License/Sub-License

Types of Agricultural Land

Barani: Barani Araazi is rain-fed land areas. Some of Brani areas are nowadays irrigated on the tubewells wherever groundwater level is high.
Nahri: Nahri Arazi is any canal-irrigated land.
Chahi: Chahi Araazi is any land that is irrigated through wells/tube wells.

Advancement in Land Record System

The Government of Punjab, Pakistan has developed a computerized land record system (LRMIS). The Government of India has also developed a software system called Patwary Information System (PATIS).

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